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CRC-16 calculation

A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data. Blocks of data entering these systems get a short check value attached, based on the remainder of a polynomial division of their contents. On retrieval, the calculation is repeated and, in the event the check values do not match, corrective action can be taken against data corruption.

CRCs are so called because the check (data verification) value is a redundancy (it expands the message without adding information) and the algorithm is based on cyclic codes. CRCs are popular because they are simple to implement in binary hardware, easy to analyze mathematically, and particularly good at detecting common errors caused by noise in transmission channels. Because the check value has a fixed length, the function that generates it is occasionally used as a hash function. CRCs can be used for error correction.

CRC-16 calculation generates 2 bytes from a datastring. It is really important since CRC-16 is added to the end of an RTU frame. You can implement CRC-16 calculation in your codes (Code 1) or calculate CRC one by one on the following website. This website is also capable to calculate CRC-32, but keep in mind, CRC-32 is NOT used in RTU modbus frames.

Crc16 C# class

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace modbus_devices
{
    static class Crc16
    {
        private static ushort[] CrcTable = {
        0X0000, 0XC0C1, 0XC181, 0X0140, 0XC301, 0X03C0, 0X0280, 0XC241,
        0XC601, 0X06C0, 0X0780, 0XC741, 0X0500, 0XC5C1, 0XC481, 0X0440,
        0XCC01, 0X0CC0, 0X0D80, 0XCD41, 0X0F00, 0XCFC1, 0XCE81, 0X0E40,
        0X0A00, 0XCAC1, 0XCB81, 0X0B40, 0XC901, 0X09C0, 0X0880, 0XC841,
        0XD801, 0X18C0, 0X1980, 0XD941, 0X1B00, 0XDBC1, 0XDA81, 0X1A40,
        0X1E00, 0XDEC1, 0XDF81, 0X1F40, 0XDD01, 0X1DC0, 0X1C80, 0XDC41,
        0X1400, 0XD4C1, 0XD581, 0X1540, 0XD701, 0X17C0, 0X1680, 0XD641,
        0XD201, 0X12C0, 0X1380, 0XD341, 0X1100, 0XD1C1, 0XD081, 0X1040,
        0XF001, 0X30C0, 0X3180, 0XF141, 0X3300, 0XF3C1, 0XF281, 0X3240,
        0X3600, 0XF6C1, 0XF781, 0X3740, 0XF501, 0X35C0, 0X3480, 0XF441,
        0X3C00, 0XFCC1, 0XFD81, 0X3D40, 0XFF01, 0X3FC0, 0X3E80, 0XFE41,
        0XFA01, 0X3AC0, 0X3B80, 0XFB41, 0X3900, 0XF9C1, 0XF881, 0X3840,
        0X2800, 0XE8C1, 0XE981, 0X2940, 0XEB01, 0X2BC0, 0X2A80, 0XEA41,
        0XEE01, 0X2EC0, 0X2F80, 0XEF41, 0X2D00, 0XEDC1, 0XEC81, 0X2C40,
        0XE401, 0X24C0, 0X2580, 0XE541, 0X2700, 0XE7C1, 0XE681, 0X2640,
        0X2200, 0XE2C1, 0XE381, 0X2340, 0XE101, 0X21C0, 0X2080, 0XE041,
        0XA001, 0X60C0, 0X6180, 0XA141, 0X6300, 0XA3C1, 0XA281, 0X6240,
        0X6600, 0XA6C1, 0XA781, 0X6740, 0XA501, 0X65C0, 0X6480, 0XA441,
        0X6C00, 0XACC1, 0XAD81, 0X6D40, 0XAF01, 0X6FC0, 0X6E80, 0XAE41,
        0XAA01, 0X6AC0, 0X6B80, 0XAB41, 0X6900, 0XA9C1, 0XA881, 0X6840,
        0X7800, 0XB8C1, 0XB981, 0X7940, 0XBB01, 0X7BC0, 0X7A80, 0XBA41,
        0XBE01, 0X7EC0, 0X7F80, 0XBF41, 0X7D00, 0XBDC1, 0XBC81, 0X7C40,
        0XB401, 0X74C0, 0X7580, 0XB541, 0X7700, 0XB7C1, 0XB681, 0X7640,
        0X7200, 0XB2C1, 0XB381, 0X7340, 0XB101, 0X71C0, 0X7080, 0XB041,
        0X5000, 0X90C1, 0X9181, 0X5140, 0X9301, 0X53C0, 0X5280, 0X9241,
        0X9601, 0X56C0, 0X5780, 0X9741, 0X5500, 0X95C1, 0X9481, 0X5440,
        0X9C01, 0X5CC0, 0X5D80, 0X9D41, 0X5F00, 0X9FC1, 0X9E81, 0X5E40,
        0X5A00, 0X9AC1, 0X9B81, 0X5B40, 0X9901, 0X59C0, 0X5880, 0X9841,
        0X8801, 0X48C0, 0X4980, 0X8941, 0X4B00, 0X8BC1, 0X8A81, 0X4A40,
        0X4E00, 0X8EC1, 0X8F81, 0X4F40, 0X8D01, 0X4DC0, 0X4C80, 0X8C41,
        0X4400, 0X84C1, 0X8581, 0X4540, 0X8701, 0X47C0, 0X4680, 0X8641,
        0X8201, 0X42C0, 0X4380, 0X8341, 0X4100, 0X81C1, 0X8081, 0X4040 };

        public static byte[] ComputeCrc(byte[] data)
        {
            ushort crc = 0xFFFF;

            foreach (byte datum in data)
                crc = (ushort)((crc >> 8) ^ CrcTable[(crc ^ datum) & 0xFF]);

            return BitConverter.GetBytes(crc);
        }
    }
}

Code 1 - A C# code to calculate CRC-16

Contents retrieved from

  • https://www.wikipedia.org/

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